Double Agent’s D-Day Victory. They are both spies, but whom do they work for-the Allies or the Nazis. Five years later, in 1949, he was made the MI6 station chief in Washington, D.C., where he served as the main liaison between British and American intelligence agencies. While he was behind bars, World War II broke out and the Germans seized Jersey. Agent GARBO (1941-44) The story of Jean Pujol Garcia, codenamed GARBO, one of the most successful double agents in the history of espionage. He died there in 1988 and received a funeral with a KGB honor guard as well as other tributes including his own postage stamp. After this, Pujol wanted to get out of Europe and away from his memories of the war, so he moved to Venezuela. They never discovered that he was a double agent, despite the fact that a lot of his information was incorrect. They would find German spies and then turn them into double agents. Instead, he formulated a plan to pad his resume while aiding the war effort. Three years later, he volunteered to spy for GRU, the Soviet military intelligence agency. A brilliant "little" spy film. One sympathizer, Hans Kohout, a naturalized British citizen, thought the information he passed on to King, in reality, an agent of British intelligence, concerning a top secret British tactic that could negate an enemy’s air defenses, exposing major cities to destructive air raids, would make it to Germany. In 1948, he called Tommy Harris, who’d been his handler at MI5, and instructed him to tell everyone that he had died of malaria in Angola. When Pujol revealed himself, they brought him to London to work for MI5. Sebold, a German native born in 1899, served in his nation’s army during World War I then lived in the United States and South America before becoming a naturalized U.S. citizen in 1936. After the European war ended in 1945, Pujol continued to work for MI5 to investigate whether Germany had any plans to resurrect a sort of Fourth Reich. Deception and Double Agents: The Success of Operation Fortitude 3. "The Double-Cross System" was written by John Cecil Masterman in 1945 at the request of the Director General of the Security Services as a history of MI5's section B1A, which dealt with double agents during World War II. After the war, Pujol moved to Venezuela, but in 1949 British authorities seeking to protect him from possible Nazi retribution told his ex-wife and children that he’d died of malaria in Africa. In 2009, a splinter group called the Real IRA claimed responsibility for Donaldson’s murder, but no charges have been filed in the case. In 1945, for achievements during WWII, he received the Order of the British Empire from Queen Elizabeth II. In 1985, though, he resumed spying for the Soviets, this time for the KGB, while continuing to rise through the FBI’s ranks. After being trained by the Abwehr, Pujol agreed to establish a network of agents in the United Kingdom who could supply the Germans with military intelligence. Meanwhile, he continued to offer to spy for the British, who in the spring of 1942 finally agreed to let him work as an operative and brought him to England, where he was given the code name Garbo because he was such a good actor. He died in 1997. During a visit to his native German a young William Sebold was coerced into becoming a Nazi spy. American Battle Monuments Commission | National History Day | Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media. That turned out to be quite helpful, because no one would suspect them as a spy. Each time I read one it is like meeting up with old friends. Dusko Popov might have been the real James Bond. It gave him a role that he wanted to play.”. But because many former Nazis had also chosen Venezuela as a place to flee from their crimes, Pujol figured it would be safer for him there if everybody thought he was dead. Learn about six fascinating double agents, from the FBI counterspy who brought down a major espionage ring in the United States to the operative who fooled the Nazis about D-Day. “So he was a complete amateur, but he was able to sort of built up enough of a portfolio to finally approach the British.”. british double agents ww2. The FBI constructed a shortwave radio station on New York’s Long Island, where agents impersonating Sebold exchanged hundreds of messages with the Nazis. After that, he began sending the Nazis fabricated information that they thought was from London, but which was actually fed from Lisbon and Madrid. MOSCOW (Sputnik) — The UK domestic intelligence service MI5 made public a new batch of previously classified files covering the period from the end of WWII to the mid-sixties and including the information on Soviet spies, the UK government's official archive statement said Wednesday. The observations in the south-central areas largely gave accurate information about the units l… At his wife’s insistence, Hanssen promised to cut ties with the Soviets and confessed to a priest, who told him to donate the ill-gotten money to charity. How quiet actions and secretive circumstances held the difference between winning or losing a battle, or much larger stakes. Due to a combination of counter-espionage work prior to World War II and signals intelligence during it, MI5 agents were in a position to monitor and pick up German agents as they were 'dropped' into Britain. However, instead of going to England, Pujol went to Portugal, where he invented an espionage ring that eventually included more than two dozen agents, all of them completely fabricated. Home / british double agents ww2. Before his remarkable espionage career, Pujol, a Barcelona native born in 1912, cycled through a series of occupations, including failed chicken farmer, owner of an unsuccessful movie theater and manager of a rundown hotel. In the field of counterintelligence, a double agent is an employee of a secret intelligence service for one country, whose primary purpose is to spy on a target organization of another country, but who is now spying on their own country's organization for the target organization. In the 1970s, he went to prison for plotting to bomb several buildings and served time with Gerry Adams, the future leader of Sinn Fein, the IRA-linked political party, as well as Bobby Sands, the famous Irish hunger striker who died in 1981. They never discovered that he was a double agent, despite the fact that a lot of his information was incorrect. In 1942, Pujol again approached British officials about becoming a double-agent by showing them that, in fact, he already was one. In 1951, two of his friends and fellow British operatives defected to Moscow after Philby warned them they were about to be exposed as double agents. He would have probably been safe from Nazi retaliation had he, for instance, revealed himself in the 1960s. Juan Pujol Garcia (codename: GARBO) the unlikely chicken farmer that turned into a celebrated Allied double agent during WWII was the only man to ever fool Hitler. Desperate times call for desperate measures, the old saying goes, and the dark days of World War Two were definitely desperate times. Twice a week we compile our most fascinating features and deliver them straight to you. Twice a week we compile our most fascinating features and deliver them straight to you. Three years later, during a visit to his homeland, Sebold was recruited to spy on the United States for Germany. In addition, Talty says that Pujol was good at assuming different personas—one of the reasons he was such an unusually good spy in the first place. A Chicagoan born in 1944, Hanssen earned degrees from Knox College and Northwestern University before joining the FBI in 1976. Indeed, 'Tate' was to continue his link with Hamburg from … Juan Pujol Garcia in disguise, as seen from Edmon Roch’s film “Garbo the Spy.” (Credit: First Run Features). In January 1943, the British faked an attack on the De Havilland factory and successfully tricked the Germans into thinking Chapman had done his job. In the wake of the scandal, Philby resigned from MI6; however, the agency later rehired him and in 1956 sent him to Beirut, where as a cover he again worked as a journalist. “He was an idealistic double agent, which is very rare. Agent Garbo’s greatest deception came in 1944, when he played a key role in Operation Fortitude, a successful plot to mislead the Nazis into thinking that the bulk of the D-Day troop landings would occur at Calais rather than Normandy. He was honored at Buckingham Palace and reunited with his children before passing away in 1988. He returned to Europe and reconnected with his ex-wife, who’d always suspected he was alive, and his very-upset children, who had not. British intelligence called Juan Pujiol Garcia 'Agent Garbo' because he was so good at assuming new identities. He started to cooperate with the Soviet secret service in the mid-1930s, shortly after graduating from … Juan Pujol Garcia, also known as Agent Garbo, circa 1940. The man claimed Hitler had a body double who took his place in the final days of WW2, according to the report dated January 19, 1955. Two of these, codenamed 'Summer' and 'Tate', were to become important double agents. “The Double Agents” is no different, using his same characters from earlier work, Griffin spins the tale of the Dick Canidy, the OSS and upcoming invasion of Sicily. “If you read espionage history, so many agents are either trapped into becoming double agents or paid for their work,” Talty says. After the FBI learned, thanks to help from an ex-KGB officer, that Hanssen was a mole, he was arrested in February 2001. All Rights Reserved. The World’s Greatest Spy. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! In Double Agent, Peter Duffy tells this full account. Back in the United States in February 1940, the FBI convinced Sebold to become the agency’s first counterspy, or double agent. He died in California in 1970. The Nazis continued to think of Pujol as an important spy throughout the war. Unbeknownst to him, British operatives had already realized that a secret spy was sending information to Germany from Portugal and Spain, but didn’t know who that spy was. Later that year, in an effort to avoid the death penalty, the veteran FBI agent pleaded guilty to 15 counts of espionage. He died a second—and final—time in 1988, but not before writing a book about his life with West (West is actually the pen name of Rupert Allason, a former member of Parliament who’s been sued several times for libel). A womaniser, gambler and with a taste for champagne and sports cars, he was a regular at the Estoril Casino’s tables. In late 1942, after parachuting into England on a mission to blow up a De Havilland aircraft factory north of London, Chapman instead offered to work for MI5, the British intelligence agency. During the campaign for France, the Allies had success in a number of key intelligence efforts. With Robert Hossein, Marina Vlady, Michel Etcheverry, Robert Le Béal. These agents were dropped by parachute or smuggled in by dinghy or by passage through a neutral country. “[The Germans] also felt that if they cut him off or if they doubted him even, they were not going to just lose one agent, they were going lose a network.”, VIDEO: D-Day: Allied Invasion at Normandy. The battle for the Rock of Gibraltar (1942-45) How the Security Service defended Gibraltar from German and Spanish spies and saboteurs. 6 Daring Double Agents Learn about six fascinating double agents, from the FBI counterspy who brought down a major espionage ring in the United … Some of these spies and double agents are actually famous for other things. For his supposed bravery, the Nazis awarded him a medal. The FBI also helped Sebold set up a specially rigged office in Manhattan, where agents clandestinely filmed him meeting with German spies, including Frederick Duquesne, head of a Nazi espionage network in America. Pujol, aka Agent Garbo, maintained contact with his German handlers in the Madrid Embassy through innocent-looking letters that contained secret messages, and later by inventing a sympathizing English radio operator who could send reports directly. It is well written and researched as all of Griffin's books. Though Pujol sent Germany false reports, he used lots of factual information to make them seem legitimate, says Stephan Talty, author of Agent Garbo: The Brilliant, Eccentric Secret Agent Who Tricked Hitler and Saved D-Day and a forthcoming book about a Cold War rescue mission. In 1944, Chapman, codenamed Zigzag by MI5, parachuted into England once again, this time on a mission to let the Germans know whether their missiles were reaching their targets. Sebold secretly went to the American consulate in Cologne and reported what had happened. © 2021 A&E Television Networks, LLC. Philby, the best-known member of the Cambridge FiveSoviet spy ring in the UK, held both the highest British and Soviet state awards. However, decades later a British historian tracked down Pujol, still in Venezuela, and in 1984, the 40th anniversary of D-Day, the public learned he was still alive. The Nazis, who had learned he once worked briefly at an airplane factory in California, threatened him if he failed to cooperate. Born in England in 1914, Chapman did a brief stint with the British army as a teen then turned to crime, becoming a professional safecracker. It might surprise you to know how much female spies and double agents have affected history. They were very good at this, turning more than 40 German spies into double agents. In 2002, police in Belfast arrested Donaldson and accused him of being part of a Sinn Fein spy ring at the Northern Ireland parliament building, Stormont, where he served as Sinn Fein’s senior administrator. He became interested in communism as a university student and by the mid-1930s had been recruited to spy for the Soviets. He claims … Directed by Robert Hossein. All 33 members of what became known as the Duquesne Spy Ring were convicted that December, shortly after Germany declared war against the United States. The Double Cross Committee was known as the Twenty Committee because the Roman numerals, XX, formed a double cross. Th In 1991, with the Soviet Union dissolving, Hanssen stopped spying out of fear he’d be found out. Maybe this background explains why WW2 history is filled with stories of the greatest double agents of all time. That isn’t to say he didn’t make some mistakes. It was there in April 2006 that he was found tortured and shot dead. The Allied accomplishment on D-Day was made possible by years of intelligence success that would continue until ultimate victory in Normandy. After World War II, a critical MI5 spy named Juan Pujol Garcia faked his own death, and kept it secret for almost four decades. Essentially, Pujol became a rogue double-agent whom Britain didn’t even know it had. Posing as a Spanish official who was flying to London, Pujol made contact with Nazi officials in Madrid and told them that he was interested in spying on Britain for the Third Reich. (1959) Robert Hossein, Marina Vlady, Robert Le Beal. As a young man, Donaldson, who was born in Belfast in 1950, joined the Irish Republican Army (IRA) and fought against British rule in Northern Ireland. However, in 1999, while serving as the FBI liaison to the U.S. State Department, he started spying for the SVR, the Russian intelligence service. In 1947, with the Cold war approaching, Joseph Stalin awarded him the Order of the Red Banner. Sometime during the 1980s Donaldson became a paid spy for Britain and went on to work for British intelligence services while at the same time becoming a key Sinn Fein official. Female agents during WW2 helped the war effort tremendously with their hard work and dedication to achieve tough challenges during WW2. Documents Used ★ indicates an ABMC source. Webster’s defines double agent as “a spy pretending to serve one government while actually serving another.” Perhaps they should add that being a double might be the most dangerous job in intelligence work and, if spy fiction is any indication, things usually don’t end well. The Double Agents continues the adventures of Dick Canidy and the O.S.S. However, in December 2005, the charges against Donaldson were mysteriously dropped. Instead, agents were allowed to report minutiae such as insignia on soldiers' uniforms and unit markings on vehicles. When Chapman was released in 1941, he offered to spy for the Germans but was ignored. Last year, Variety reported that Oscar Isaac will star in a film about his life. Soon afterward, he publicly confessed to being a longtime informant for the British and said he’d been recruited “after compromising myself during a vulnerable time of my life.” Following this announcement, Donaldson fled to an isolated cottage in County Donegal. Talty argues that Pujol seemed to be ashamed that he was not able to make a successful career for himself in Venezuela after the war, and that this is part of why he stayed in hiding. He was trained and returned to the United States to carry out his mission. A previously unseen video of infamous double agent Kim Philby describing his career as a Soviet spy is uncovered by the BBC. And that’s not even the most interesting thing about him. Using reference books and magazines, Pujol, who had never been to England, devised fictional intelligence reports that looked as if he were sending them from London. Britain’s domestic intelligence agency, MI5, notes on its website that Pujol once told Germans that on a visit to Glasgow, Scotland, he found men who “would do anything for a litre of wine.” Evidently, the Nazis didn’t catch that he should’ve said “beer” or “whiskey” (in 2015, the Telegraph declared “Scotland’s first wine branded ‘undrinkable’ by critics”). FACT CHECK: We strive for accuracy and fairness. When Britain went to war with Germany in 1939, he was determined to join the British war effort as a spy against Germany; so determined that he wasn’t deterred when British officers turned him down because he didn’t have any connections or credentials. Instead, he gave the Nazis misleading information, causing them to redirect the attacks to less populated areas and likely saving numerous lives. The fifth column case (1942-43) How Eric Roberts prevented a network of Nazi sympathisers from becoming an effective fascist fifth column in Britain. as they try to stop Hitler and the Nazi's. There, the Germans took Chapman up on his offer and eventually trained him as an agent for the Abwehr, the Third Reich’s military intelligence organization. View newsreel film footage detailing the D-day invasion of France on June 6, 1944. Double agentry may be practiced by spies of the target organization who infiltrate the controlling organization or may result from the turning of previously loyal agents of the controlling organization by the target. In 1944, he became head of the agency’s anti-Soviet intelligence operations, all the while passing secrets to the KGB. Double Agent is the true story of Nazi espionage in pre-war America and the German-American who helped to bring it down. The Double Cross During World War II, the British developed the Double Cross System. © 2021 A&E Television Networks, LLC. Not long after, he was arrested again and sent to a Nazi-run prison on the outskirts of Paris. The news reached Pujol’s first wife and children in Spain. (Credit: The National Archives UK), “He was really gathering these sort of factoids from different encyclopedias, and even from advertisements he saw and placards he saw in the street,” Talty says. The Nazis continued to think of Pujol as an important spy throughout the war. In his most famous deception, Pujol told the Nazis that news they’d heard about a planned invasion of Normandy was fake. Meanwhile, in Venezuela, Pujol grew a beard and started wearing a distinctive pair of glasses. In 1980, after Hanssen’s wife reportedly caught him with some suspicious-looking papers, he admitted to selling secrets to the Soviets but claimed the information he’d handed over was worthless. Hitler's last days (1945) Eyewitness accounts of the last days of Adolf Hitl… FACT CHECK: We strive for accuracy and fairness. Mandovi Menon Updated: Mar 12, 2012, ... which gave them the choice of becoming British double agents or being executed. Here is a story “rich with eccentric characters, suspense, and details of spycraft in the war’s early days….The result is a compelling cultural history with all the intricacy and intrigue of a good spy novel” ( The Boston Globe ). Of course, this wasn’t true, and as a result the Nazis were unprepared for the Allies’ successful D-Day invasion. He is currently serving his term of 15 consecutive life sentences at the supermax prison in Florence, Colorado. But that wasn’t the case for Pujol. Pujol kept his secret until the 1980s, when the British writer Nigel West looked into his life and theorized that he hadn’t died. Primary Sources. All Rights Reserved. “I think the Germans felt that no one could really fake this much information and this many different characters,” Talty says, referencing the 27 imaginary spies that Pujol told Germans he had recruited to feed him information (Pujol’s MI5 codename was “Agent Garbo” because he was such a good actor). Philby was suspected of tipping them off but MI6 officials stood by their charming colleague and no charges were brought against him. Interview: The Author Who Uncovered a WW2 Double Agent. Hossein and Vlady play mysterious characters who meet up one night in a lonely cabin in the wilds of Normandy. In 1939, he was arrested on the island of Jersey and sentenced to prison. Harris spread this news through the organization, and a year later the British ambassador officially told Spain that he was dead. After the United States entered World War II, the British began to share sensitive intelligence with COI, including the breaking of German military and diplomatic codes, which led to the rounding up of all German double agents inside England. Pujol was a veteran of the Spanish Civil War who had come to loathe totalitarianism, both in Francisco Franco and Adolf Hitler. Why Hanssen, a church-going father of six, betrayed his country is not fully known, although money rather than ideological beliefs seems to have been one motivating factor. At the urging of his Soviet handlers, Philby worked as a journalist then joined MI6, the British intelligence agency, during World War II. West tracked down Pujol, who came out of hiding and announced that it was true. In June 1941, as a result of Sebold’s work, the FBI arrested 33 people accused of spying for the Nazis. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Allowing one of the double agents to claim to have stolen documents describing the closely guarded invasion plans might have aroused suspicion. During his two decades as a spy, Hanssen handed over thousands of pages of classified material that revealed such things as the identities of Soviets spying for the United States, specifics about America’s nuclear operations and the “continuity of government” plan (detailing where top U.S. government officials will be moved to in a national emergency), the existence of an FBI-built tunnel underneath the Soviet Embassy in Washington, among numerous other national security secrets. By then, Sebold and his wife had entered a witness protection program. The son of an Englishman who was an explorer and writer, Philby was born in India in 1912 and educated at elite schools in Britain. The other big problem that limited the usefulness of the double agents was the constant, nagging fear that any cooked-up reports sent back by the controlled agents would be contradicted by other German agents who had slipped in undetected, possibly endangering the whole scheme. After the war, Chapman smuggled gold and ran a health spa, among other activities. Throughout the war the Nazi intelligence agencies infiltrated their agents into Britain to do surveillance on the movement of military forces, carry out sabotage attacks on important targets and send back weather reports. Every single one of them, without exception, was successful interdic… Talty notes that Pujol didn’t have to fake his death for as long as he did. Brother of SOE agents Eileen & Jacqueline Nearne Jacqueline Nearne: France : British: … The British put their double-agent network to work in support of Operation Fortitude, a plan to deceive the Germans about the location of the invasion of France. Pretending to be a rabid Nazi, he then offered to spy for the Germans, believing this would help convince the British to take him on. Then, in early 1963, after learning British officials had discovered convincing new evidence he’d spied for the Soviets, Philby escaped to Russia. HISTORY reviews and updates its content regularly to ensure it is complete and accurate. After the outbreak of World War II, Pujol, who despised Adolf Hitler, volunteered his services to British authorities in Madrid but was rejected. He did it strictly out of idealism, and I think also to realize himself as the great improvisational actor that he knew he was. ABMCEDUCATION.ORG . For some reason the Nazi intelligence apparatus was obsessed with British weather, more so even than the British populace. For his efforts, Hanssen was paid $600,000 in cash and diamonds, with another $800,000 supposedly held for him in a Russian bank. HISTORY reviews and updates its content regularly to ensure it is complete and accurate. “Scotland’s first wine branded ‘undrinkable’ by critics”.
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